Learn More About Dr. Leung's Research Philosophy

Dr. Leung says "My thinking has changed and I no longer trust research findings on botanicals unless... "
Click to read more about Dr. Leung's research philosophy.

Thursday, May 31, 2007

Codonopsis - The Poor Man's Ginseng

Codonopsis is the root of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. and other Codonopsis spp. Having the properties of qi tonic, central stimulant, radioprotective, antistress, immunomodulating, and hypotensive, its recent and modern uses include high blood pressure, chronic anemia, and leukemia. Codonopsis is more commonly and traditionally used for general weakness, tiredness, lack of appetitie, chronic diarrhea, asthma, cough, palpitations, shortness of breath, thirst, fever, and diabetes.

Considered as the poor man's ginseng, codonopsis is also known as dangshen. It is frequently used as a ginseng substitute to treat many of the same conditions as ginseng. Its documented use dates back only about three hundred years, but it has since become a highly valued qi tonic of status equal to that of some ancient ones (such as astragalus, ginseng, and jujube). It is frequently used in combination with other herbs or in soup mixes to treat conditions due to Spleen and blood deficiencies as well as damaged qi. It is often used in "energy" formulas for its central stimulant effect as well as in formulas for boosting one's immune system.

Codonopsis contains large amounts of polysacharides and sugars (inulin, starch, glucose, sucrose, fructose, etc.), saponins (tangshenosides, but no ginsenosides), amino acids, alkaloids, triterpenes, sterols, volatile oil, oroxylin A, and trace minerals, among others.

Its extracts have been shown to increase blood sugar levels in animals, yet codonopsis is traditionally used to treat diabetes. This appears to be another case of contradiction in herbal research. Nevertheless, many of the other traditional uses have been corroborated by Western Science.

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including codonopsis on page 18. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit http://www.earthpower.com/.

Tuesday, May 29, 2007

Ganoderma, Elixir of Life

Ganoderma or reishi or lingzhi all refer to the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. [red lingzhi] and G. japonicum (Fr.) Lloyd. [purple lingzhi]. Ganoderma is a general tonic which benefits qi (energy), improves memory, benefits complexion, eases joint movement, strengthens tendons and bones, and calms nerves. The most common listed traditional uses are against general weakness, cough, asthma, insomnia, and indigestion. Modern, more recent uses include nightmares, neurasthenia, heart problems (coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, hyperlipemia, hypertension etc.), lack of appetite, chronic hepatitis, mushroom poisoning, chronic bronchitis, leukocytopenia.

Ganoderma is known as lingzhi in Chinese and reishi or mannentake in Japanese. It was the "elixir of life" sought by emperors and sages during most of China's long history, and has been glorified in Chinese literary classics, with a reputation as a tonic to prolong life matching that of ginseng.

Both ganodermas are widely distributed in China, especially along coastal provinces. Ganoderma lucidum is also found growing on hardwoods in North America. Until recent years, ganoderma was rather rare and was primarily reserved for the privileged classes. But since the successful cultivation of G. lucidum, it is now readily available both from the Far East as well as the United States and Canada.

During the past few decades, hundreds of scientific studies (especially chemical and pharmacological) on ganoderma have been published, mostly by Japanese and Chinese researchers. These scientists have found ganoderma to contain many types of biologically active chemical constituents, including sterols, triterpenes, polysaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, peptides, adenosine, betaine, alkaloids, and trace minerals (high in germanium), among others. Its pharmacological activities are very broad, including sedative, analgesic, anticonvulsive, hypertensive and hypotensive, anti-allergic, liver protectant, hypoglycemic, antitumor, anticoagulant, hypolipemic and hypercholesterolemic, anticholinergic, antioxidant, immunomodulating, smooth muscle relaxant, antitussive, antiasthmatic, vasodilative, diuretic, anabolic, antiinflammatory, anti-fatigue and antibacterial, etc. Even though these are isolated studies, the sheer quantity of bioactivity seems to give some justification of ganoderma's good reputation as a highly valued general tonic. Let's face it, there is no way one can subject a tonic like ganoderma (or ginseng) to so-called clinical trials (double-blind, randomized, etc.) and expect to obtain meaningful results.

As an observant reader, you would have noticed that ganoderma has both hypotensive and hypertensive as well as both hypolipemic and hyperchlolesteremic effects. These are opposite effects and the kind of research that would drive some scientists nuts, especially those looking for one drug / one effect. Some biochemists and pharmacologists may try to explain these findings in fancy technical terms, with elaborate theories and mechanisms of action. But the fact is that they may not have the foggiest idea why ganoderma exhibits opposite effects. Me? I don't know either. But I would simply attribute all these effects to Mother Nature's work being superior to those of human endeavors; you just can't simply break it down to fit our limited scope of understanding.

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including ganoderma on pages 33-34. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit http://www.earthpower.com/.

Friday, May 25, 2007


Fenugreek is the ripe seed of the plant Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Family Leguminosae). Fenugreek has the following properties: digestive, expectorant, fever-reducing, aphrodisiac, male tonic, pain-relieving, demulcent, emollient, promoting milk flow, uterine stimulant, and hypoglycemic. The most common traditional uses include fever, sore throat, bronchitis, mouth ulcers, chapped lips, chronic cough, gout, neuralgia, sciatica, swollen glands, skin sores, furuncle, irritations, impotence, spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, kidney ailments, beriberi, hernia, and abdominal pain.

Fenugreek has been used since ancient times as a medicine and food or spice in Egypt, India and the Middle East, but has been adopted by the Chinese for only about a thousand years. While the Chinese consider fenugreek as a warming herb, other cultures use it to treat fevers and other "hot" conditions (e.g. swollen glands, sore throat, skin sores, furuncle) that are normally treated in Chinese medicine with coooling herbs.

None of the scientific studies on fenugreek published so far appear to have any relevance to its traditional uses except, perhaps, its chemistry. Chemically, it is rich in steroid precursors (from which steroid drugs can be produced), flavonoids (many of which have strong antioxidant properties), mucilage (maybe the demulcent and emollient principle), protein and other nutrients (amino acids, vitamins A, B1 and C, etc.). These compounds may contribute to its traditional properties.

Also, a statement in an early 16th Century Chinese herbal advising pregnant women not to use fenugreek seems to have some rationale, as it has been found to stimulate animal uteruses in the laboratory. But don't be prematurely alarmed! Fenugreek is a major ingredient of currry which has been safely used over centuries by billions of people, many of whom were no doubt pregnant. The key, as always, is the amount ingested. Again, let's not forget the word "moderation".

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including fenugreek on page 26. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit www.earthpower.com.

Wednesday, May 23, 2007


Baizhu is the dried rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. Baizhu is a qi tonic and a diuretic, and also has the properties of invigorating the spleen and calming the fetus. Traditional uses include treatment of indigestion, flatulence, diarrhea, fluid retention, spontaneous perspiration, and restless fetus (excessive fetal movement). More modern uses include constipation, leukopenia, toxic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Baizhu is often simply called "atractylodes" but that term can also apply to cangzhu, a related but distinctly different herb. Hence, baizhu products manufactured in America may in fact contain the wrong atractylodes. This is not surprising, as only in recent years have Chinese herbs become popular here, and many manufactures and herbalists are still not knowledgeable about them. They tend to treat them as Western herbs that are much simpler in their selection, collection, and initial treatment. Thus, like fo-ti, you are at the mercy of the manufacturers, who are often in turn at the mercy of their suppliers.

Like astragalus and ginseng, baizhu is one of the best known Chinese qi tonics. For over two thousand years, it has been safely used in soups and its extracts in cakes and specialty rices, to maintain and improve health. Chemical studies have shown baizhu to contain up to 1.4% of a volatile oil (much less than that in cangzhu - up to 9.0%), sesquiterpene lactones, acetylenes, polysaccharides and others. Scientists have also found various pharmacologic effects in baizhu extracts and in one or more of baizhu's chemical components. These effects include antiinflammatory, immunopotentiating, improving stamina, diuretic, hypoglycemic, liver protectant, anticoagulant and antitumor. Again, as with most modern studies on herbal tonics, none of their biological effects alone can account for baizhu's traditional tonic properties. Nevertheless, when considered together, they do seem to show some scientific justification for baizhu's traditional use to benefit our body when we are not in good health.

In recent years, baizhu has been effectively used in China in cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy along with other tonic herbs (licorice, astragalus, etc.) to counteract the toxic side effects of these harsh treatments.

Baizhu is also used in skin care cosmetics for treating dark spots and wrinkles on the face and hands.

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including baizhu on page 7. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit http://www.earthpower.com/.

Monday, May 21, 2007

Royal Jelly

This milky white, viscous substance originates with the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). It is secreted by the worker bees and used as food for the queen bee. Royal jelly is used as a nutrient and a general tonic. The most common advocated uses are for malnutrition in children, general weakness in the elderly, chronic hepatitis, diabetes, rheumatism, arthritis, and hypertension.

The food and medicinal uses of royal jelly appear to be of very recent origin. Hence, unlike ginseng and astragalus, these uses do not have a long historical basis, and only time will tell whether they are indeed valid.

Nevertheless, over the past few decades, there has been considerable chemical and biological work performed on royal jelly. It is very rich in several nutrients, including protein, lipids, vitamins, sterols, amino acids, and trace minerals. In addition, it contains 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (commonly called 10-HDA), which is generally considered its major active constituent and is thus used in the standardization of royal jelly products. Thus, high-quality frozen royal jelly contains about 2% while freeze-dried powdered royal jelly contains about 5% 10-HDA.

In laboratory studies, 10-HDA has been found to exhibit various biological activities, including antitumor, immunopotentiating, antimutagenic, liver-protectant, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and radiation-protectant effects. Unfortunately, none of these activities can be correlated with a long use history.

One of the most popular uses of royal jelly is in combination with Asian ginseng as an "energizer". Whether royal jelly contributes to the energizing effects of this combination remains to be seen. It is also used in various types of skin-care productsfor its claimed antiwrinkle and skin whitening properties.

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including royal jelly on page 77. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit www.earthpower.com.

Friday, May 18, 2007


Thyme, or garden thyme, consists of the leaves and flowering tops of Thymus vulgaris, an herb with anthelmintic, antispasmodic, bronchiospamolytic, carminative, sedative, diaphoretic and expectorant properties.

The most common traditional internal uses of thyme include treating throat and bronchial problems, diarrhea, cronic gastritis, and lack of apetite. External conditions include neurasthenia, rheumatic problems, paralysis, bruises, swellings, sprains, and shingles.

Thyme contains 0.8 to 2.6% of a volatile oil called "thyme oil' which is generally considered its active component. The oil is composed of various phenols, monoterpene hydrocarbons, alcohol and other volatiles, including thymol and carvacrol. Apart from thyme oil thyme also contains tannin, flavonoids, triterpenes (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid), phenolic acids (caffeic and labiatic) and other biologicallly active nutrients. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are known to have various biological activites (see ligustrum and mume).

Thymol has antispasmodic, expectorant, carminative, anthelmintic (esp. hookworm) and antimicrobial (bacteria and fungi) effects and is used in mouthwashes and toothpaste for its antiseptic properties. But it is also very toxic if accidentallly ingested, although not in the amounts usuallly used in the above products. Just don't drink you r wouthwash!

To give thyme a litlle more credit as a good herb, laboratories have shown that thyme oil, thymol, and labiatic acid all to have antioxidant properties.

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including thyme on page 87. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit www.earthpower.com.

Tuesday, May 15, 2007

Ligustrum: A Valued Tonic Herb

The dried ripe fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (Family Oleaceae), known as nuzhenzi in Chinese, is a yin tonic which brightens vision, darkens hair, invigorates the liver and kidney and nourishes blood. It has traditionally been used for premature graying of hair, dizziness, tinnitus, sore back and knees, blurred vision, and habitual constipation in the elderly. A more modern use is in the treatment of chronic benzene poisoning.

Ligustrum is one of the most highly valued Chinese tonics, often used in soup mixes and wines. In an effort to understand how and why it has been so highly valued since around 800 B.C., Chinese scientists have recently found that it exhibits a wide variety of effects both in animals and humans. These effects include immunomodulating, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, antimutagenic, anti-allergic, sedative, diuretic, mild cardiotonic, antitumor and the prevention of leukopenia caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, etc. Many of these effects are due to oleanolic acid (also present in common jujube) which is present up to 4.3% in ligustrum, the highest among two hundred fifteen herbs tested by Chinese researchers. But oleanolic acid is probably not the only key to ligustrum's function as a highly valued tonic. Some other compounds and nutrients such as ursolic acid, mannitol, fatty acids, glycosides and other still unknown nutrients must also play a role.

According to the great herbalist, Li Shi-Zhen (1590 A.D.), ligustrum also has beautifying properties. Maybe for this reason, it is used in hair tonic formulas and formulas for removing facial dark spots primarily intended for internal use. Due to its anti-allergic and antiinflammatory activities, it can be a beneficial ingredient in skin care products.

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including Ligustrum on page 58. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit www.earthpower.com.

Friday, May 11, 2007

Part 3: Garlic, that Oderiferous Lilly

Happy Friday and now we resume our series on garlic. If you missed part 1 or part 2, you might want to check them out now. They dealt with general information and garlic's effects on the body. Today is our third and final installment on garlic, where we will discuss traditional and modern uses, as well as some simple historical home remedies.

The first recorded use of garlic in Chinese medicine dates back to the early 6th century. It has since been mentioned in most major herbals and is currently one of the official drugs listed in the pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China.

According to Li Shizhen, garlic was introduced into China along with coriander about 2,000 years ago, during the Han Dynasty.

Garlic is considered to taste pungent, to be mildly toxic, and to have warming properties. It is said to act on and benefit the spleen, stomach, and lungs. Its most significant uses in Chinese medicine are as an antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agent in treating bacterial dysentery, amebic dysentary, enteritis (inflammation of the intestines), sores, carbuncles, and the common cold. Other conditions for which garlic is used include whopping cough, internal parasites, pulmonary tuberculosis, bellyache, nosebleeds, and snake and insect bites. The usual daily internal dose of garlic is 4.5 to 15 grams (0.16 to 0.5 oz.), taken as a decoction or eaten raw or cooked. Externally, it is usually mashed and applied directly to the affected areas.

During the past few decades, many clinical reports on garlic have appeared in Chinese national and regional medical or pharmaceutical journals. They have described the successful use of garlic and its preparations in treating numerous illnesses, including amebic and bacterial dysentary, pneumococcal pneumonia, whopping cough, diphtheria, icteric (jaunciced) infectious hepatitis, trachoma, suppurative middle-ear infection, hypersensitive teeth, candidiasis (a fungal infection), head ringworms, and acute appendicitis.

Allicin extracted from garlic is now available in China in capsule or injection form for treating bacterial and fungal infections. It is also used for lowering serum cholesterol and triglycerides for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

The northern Chinese use garlic quite often, but the southern Chinese seem to stay away from it because they don't like the odors it produces. I remember we used to envy the northerners' exceptional ability to resist colds, yet we used to joke about them, saying one could detect a northerner miles away by his garlic odor.

Certainly there is no lack of remedies using garlic. The following includes just a few of them.

For nosebleed that does not stop, a classical remedy calls for external use of garlic. After removing the membranous skin, one bulb of garlic is mashed to a paste, which is then formed into a patty the size and thickness of a U.S. silver dollar. This is taped on the middle of the right sole if the bleeding is from the right nostril, and on the left sole if from the left nostril. If bleeding is from both nostrils, then two garlic patties are used, one for each sole. It is said to produce fast relief, though there is no modern Chinese clinical report attesting to this claim.

To treat diarrhea, a 7th century herbal recipe calls for simply taping mashed garlic on the middle of both soles or on one's navel.

Some Chinese households prepare a garlic wine and have it handy for the cold season. The wine is prepared by soaking three peeled garlic bulbs about 28 g. (1 oz.) each in 180 ml. (6 fl. oz.) of rice wine for at least one month. Then, when one catches a cold, one takes 15 ml. (about one tablespoonful) of this wine before retiring. To minimize the undesirable flavor, sugar dissolved in boiling water can be mixed in with the garlic wine immediately before taking it. It is said to be an effective remedy.

For treating painful snakebites and insect bites, a clove of crushed garllic is gently rubbed on the bitten area.

When a child has a cough that prevents him from sleeping at night, a clove of garlic is cut in half and the cut ends are rubbed gently on his throat. His cough then subsides and this allows him to sleep. Presumably, this could apply to adults as well.

To treat corns, a modern remedy calls for use of garlic and green onion bulbs. One bulb each of garlic and green onion are mashed together to a mudlike consistency. A small amount, enough to cover the corn, is applied and is secured by taping or wrapping. It is replaced by fresh material every two to three days. Some corns are removed after two applications. This remedy should not be used for more than four applications, and it should be discontinued if irritations develop.

Garlic is readily available in grocery stores and supermarkets.

Wednesday, May 09, 2007

Peony (Red and White)

Spring is here and the peony will be making its annual American appearance. We have come to associate the peony flower with decoration for Memorial Day in the United States. But did you know that the peony flower is also a symbol of wealth in China?

The flower of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (Family Paeoniaceae) has been a part of her classic literature since ancient times. Medicinally, the part used is the root and it is further distinguished as Red peony root (dried root of the wild plant, synonym: Shaoyao or Chishao) and White peony root (cured root of cultivated plant with bark removed, synonym: baishao). Both share some properties and each have some unique properties. Red peony root is slightly cold, analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, activates blood, removes blood stasis, and is a detoxicant. White peony root is slightly cold, analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, nourishes blood, regulates menstruation, and is a general tonic.

The most common traditional uses for red peony root are tightness in chest, abdominal pain, "hot" and "toxic" conditions. For white peony root, the most common traditional uses are for tightness in chest, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, stiff and painful joints, irregular menses, pale complexion due to blood deficiency, spontaneous perspiration, night sweat.

There doesn't appear to be too much difference between red peony root and white peony root, except that the latter is more commonly associated with use in tonics. The famous Chinese sage Confucius (who lived around 500 BC) is said to have favored a sauce made with white peony root. The ancient practice of using peony root as an ingredient in foods and in diet therapy has recently been revived in China. Now you can find various types of health foods and drinks, inclulding fruit juices, soft drinks (e.g., Shaolin Cola and West Lake Cola), and wines made with extracts of white peony root.

Extracts of both red and white peony roots are used in skin care cosmetics in China for their antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and astringent properties, especially in acne creams. This use seems to have traditional precedence because its external use to treat carbuncles was recorded in the Wu Shi Er Bing Fang (Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases) written around 1066 to 771 B.C. This work (a silk scroll copy) was uncovered in 1973 during the excavation of the Ma Wang Dui tomb (dated 168 B.C.) at Changsha, Hunan. In the same tomb, numerous herbs were found clutched in the hand of a skeleton; they included magnolia flower bud, sour jujube kernel, Chinese cinnamon, ginger, and Sichuan peppercorn.

Since the mid 1970s, Chinese scientists have found red and white peony roots to have various biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulating, analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic, antifatigue, antimutagenic, prolonging survival, improving memory, antitumor, etc., in humans and /or experimental animals. They have also discovered that many of these activities are due to the monoterpene glycosides (especially paeoniflorin) present in these herbs. Although these modern findings seem to provide scientific support to some of peony root's traditional properties and uses, they only represent a fraction of the total properties and uses of these two herbs. In addition, all above effects were results of isolated studies as typical of scientific investigations on herbs. They don't prove anything, but one could interpret these results to one's advantage.

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including red and white Peony on pages 69-70. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit www.earthpower.com.

Monday, May 07, 2007

Part 2: Garlic, That Oderiferous Lilly

Our previous installment discussed some general details about garlic, and this post will deal with the effects of garlic on the body.

Garlic has a wide variety of biological effects which have been described in many scientific reports from both the West and the East. Although not all the active chemical constituents of garlic are known, the volatile, sulfur-containing compounds, especially allicin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide, are generally considered to be responsible for most of the biological effects of garlic. Allicin, at a conccentration of only 1 in 100,000 (or one-thousandth of 1%) inhibits the growth of various bacterial, fungi, and disease causing amoebas.

It is now well known that garlic (oil, juice, or extract) has antibacterial and antifungal qualities, being inhibitory to some microbes and deadly to others. It also kills amoebas that cause amebic dysentery and trichomonads that cause trichomoniasis (a vaginal parasitic infestation).

Both Western and Eastern scientists have found that garlic and its water extract, when given to rats and mice by injection or in their feed, inhibit the growth, or prevent the formation, of experimentally induced tumors in these animals. Researchers have also found that garlic and garlic oil lower the blood-sugar level in rabbits, blood cholesterol in rabbits and humans, and blood pressure in animals and humans as well as preventing the formation of arteriosclerosis.

Despite its many beneficial qualities, garlic also induces blisters, irritation, or dermatitis (especially eczema) in some individuals. Hence, one should keep this in mind when handling or using garlic. These toxic effects of garlic are due, to a large extent, to the sulfur-containing compounds present in garlic oil.

Be sure to come back for our third and final installment on garlic, when we will discuss some of the traditional as well as the modern uses of garlic. We also will be describing traditional home remedies.

This material is excerpted from Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Chinese Healing Foods and Herbs. Here, Dr. Leung presents general information and home remedies using garlic as well as over 45 other herbs. Garlic information can be found on page 67 – 70. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit http://www.earthpower.com/.

Tuesday, May 01, 2007

Bee Pollen

Bee pollen consists of the microspores of the male reproductive elements of various plant species, including buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), rape (Brassica campestris L.), pine (Pinus spp.) and Typha spp. Properties associated with bee pollen include nutrient, diuretic, hemostatic, breaks up stasis, and astringent. Bee pollen is most commonly used traditionally for bleeding (nosebleed, vomiting blood, coughing blood, metrorrhagia, bloody diarrhea, traumatic injries, etc.), amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, abdominal pain, painful urination, mouth sores, eczema, alcohol intoxication, and rheumatism. A more modern or recent use is in treating constipation.

Much of the pollen used in the United States comes from China and Spain. Its sources are very different, hence its chemical composition reflects this. But in general it is very rich in nutrients, containing up to about 28% protein, 14.6% to 22.9% amino acids, 1 to 20 % lipids, up to 44% carbohydrates, 2 to 2.5% flavonoids, and 3.6% to 5.9% vitamin C. It also contains sterols, alkanes, triterpenes, etc.

Bee pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. However, no serious toxic side efffects due to its ingestion have been reported; otherwise, the news would have appeared on prime time nelevision or on the front page of newspapers.

Dr. Albert Leung’s book, Better Health with (mostly) Chinese Herbs and Food discusses the use of 60 different herbs as healing foods, including bee pollen on page 9. For more information about Dr. Leung and his writings, visit www.earthpower.com.